Judith de Bavière, épouse de Louis 1er

 

  Née en 795, Judith est fille du comte d’Altorf et de Helvide, descendants d’une puissante famille saxonne.

 

  A la mort de sa première épouse Ermengarde (3 octobre 818), qui lui a donné six enfants, l’empereur Louis 1er (fils de Charlemagne) fait rassembler les plus belles femmes de sa cour pour s’y choisir une épouse. Son choix se porte sur Judith, pourvue d’une grande beauté et de beaucoup d’ambition. Les noces ont lieu à Aix-la-Chapelle en 819.

 

  Judith, devenue impératrice d’Occident, donnera deux enfants à Louis :

-Gisèle (?- ?)

-Charles, futur Charles II le Chauve (823-877)

 

  Louis, qui a déjà trois fils de son premier lit, décide de réviser sa succession pour son fils préféré, et ce avec l’insistance de Judith. Mais les trois fils d’Ermengarde, Lothaire, Pépin et Louis se rebellent contre cette entreprise. Ils vont alors s’employer à calomnier la reine Judith dans l’espoir de sa disgrâce ainsi que celle de son fils Charles.

 

  Une bonne partie de la noblesse est de leur côté (les autres prétendantes de Charles n’ont pas manqué les occasions de se venger sur Judith qui leur a ravi leur place). Pour se défendre, la reine demande la protection du puissant comte Bernard de Barcelone. Louis 1er le fait devenir son conseiller.

 

  Lothaire, Pépin et Louis vont alors faire accuser Bernard d’entretenir des relations adultérines avec leur séduisante belle-mère. Le comte est alors contraint à se retirer sur ses terres, et Judith est conduite dans l’abbaye Ste Croix, à Poitiers.

 

  L’empereur Louis finit par se rendre à ses fils révoltés. Il est déposé et son aîné, Lothaire, monte sur le trône. Les deux cadets se retournent contre lui et finissent par aller libérer leur père, qui est rétabli en 832. Judith sort alors de son abbaye.

 

  Cependant, l’année suivante, Lothaire rallie le pape Grégoire V à sa cause et fait enfermer l’empereur à l’abbaye St Médard de Soissons, après l’avoir fait capituler le 30 juin 833. Judith est exilée à Tortona (Lombardie).

 

  En 835, Pépin et Louis rappellent leur père, une fois de plus, au pouvoir. Judith revient à la cour elle aussi. L’empereur prépare une nouvelle fois la succession de Charles, à qui il attribue notamment l’Aquitaine, auparavant désignées à Pépin, qui vient de mourir.

 

  Charles est couronné roi d’Occident en septembre 838. Louis 1er meurt de fièvre deux ans plus tard. Lothaire va encore une fois se révolter contre Louis et Charles, mais il est vaincu à Fontenoy-en-Puisaye (841). Charles et Louis se partagent alors, au traité de Verdun, l’empire paternel en trois : partie occidentale pour le premier, partie orientale pour l’autre. Lothaire est tout de même désigné empereur et hérite des terres centrales.

 

  Satisfaite de cette décision, Judith se retire à Tours où elle meurt en 843.

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